Common Core State StandardsENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS STANDARDS Reading and Literature Key Ideas and Details
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.RL.4.1
Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text
says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.RL.4.3
Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama,
drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts,
words, or actions).
Craft and Structure
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.RL.4.4
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text,
including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology
(e.g., Herculean).
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.RL.4.5
Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to
the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama
(e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage
directions) when writing or speaking about a text.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.RL.4.6
Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are
narrated, including the difference between first and thirdperson
narrations.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.RL.4.7
Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or
oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects
specific descriptions and directions in the text.
 (RL.4.8 not applicable to literature)
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.RL.4.9
Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g.,
opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in
stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.RL.4.10
By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including
stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 4–5 text complexity band
proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
Informational Text Key Ideas and Details
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.RI.4.1
Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text
says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.RI.4.2 Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.RI.4.3
Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical,
scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on
specific information in the text.
Craft and Structure
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.RI.4.4 Determine the meaning of general academic and domainspecific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.RI.4.5
Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison,
cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or
information in a text or part of a text.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.RI.4.6
Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same
event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information
provided.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.RI.4.7
Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively
(e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or
interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information
contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.RI.4.9 Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.RI.4.10
By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including
history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 4–5
text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the
high end of the range.
Foundational Skills Phonics and Word Recognition
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.RF.4.3a
Use combined knowledge of all lettersound correspondences,
syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read
accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of
context.
Fluency
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.RF.4.4b Read gradelevel prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
Writing Text Types and Purposes
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.4.1 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.4.1a
Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an
organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support
the writer’s purpose.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.4.1c Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition).
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.4.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.4.2a
Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs
and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and
multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.4.2b
Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details,
quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.4.2c Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because).
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.4.3
Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events
using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event
sequences.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.4.3a
Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a
narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds
naturally.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.4.3b Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
Production and Distribution of Writing
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.4.4
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and
organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
(Gradespecific expectations for writing types are defined in standards
1–3 above.)
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.4.5
With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen
writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (Editing for
conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 13 up to
and including grade 4 here.)
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.4.6
With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including
the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and
collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding
skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.4.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.4.8
Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant
information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize
information, and provide a list of sources.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.4.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.4.9a Apply grade 4 Reading standards
to literature (e.g., “Describe in depth a character, setting, or event
in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a
character’s thoughts, words, or actions].”).
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.4.9b Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text”).
Range of Writing
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.4.10
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research,
reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a
day or two) for a range of disciplinespecific tasks, purposes, and
audiences.
Comprehension and Collaboration
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.SL.4.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (oneonone, in groups, and teacherled) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.SL.4.1a
Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material;
explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about
the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.SL.4.1c
Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on
information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and
link to the remarks of others.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.SL.4.1d Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.SL.4.2
Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in
diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and
orally.
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.SL.4.4
Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an
organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive
details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an
understandable pace.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.SL.4.5 Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.SL.4.6
Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g.,
presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate
(e.g., smallgroup discussion); use formal English when appropriate to
task and situation. (See grade 4 Language standards 1 here for specific expectations.)
Speaking and Listening Comprehension and Collaboration
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.SL.4.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (oneonone, in groups, and teacherled) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.SL.4.1a
Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material;
explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about
the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.SL.4.1c
Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on
information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and
link to the remarks of others.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.SL.4.1d Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.SL.4.2
Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in
diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and
orally.
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.SL.4.4
Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an
organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive
details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an
understandable pace.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.SL.4.5 Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.SL.4.6
Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g.,
presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate
(e.g., smallgroup discussion); use formal English when appropriate to
task and situation. (See grade 4 Language standards 1 here for specific expectations.)
Language Conventions of Standard English
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.1b Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.1d Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
Knowledge of Language
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.3c
Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g.,
presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate
(e.g., smallgroup discussion).
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.4
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiplemeaning words
and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from
a range of strategies.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.4a Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.4b Use common, gradeappropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.4c
Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries,
thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and
determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.5 Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.5c
Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites
(antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings
(synonyms).
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.6
Acquire and use accurately gradeappropriate general academic and
domainspecific words and phrases, including those that signal precise
actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered)
and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).
Conventions of Standard English
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.1b Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.1d Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
Knowledge of Language
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.3c
Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g.,
presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate
(e.g., smallgroup discussion).
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.4
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiplemeaning words
and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from
a range of strategies.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.4a Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.4b Use common, gradeappropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.4c
Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries,
thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and
determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.5 Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.5c
Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites
(antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings
(synonyms).
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.6
Acquire and use accurately gradeappropriate general academic and
domainspecific words and phrases, including those that signal precise
actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered)
and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).
Conventions of Standard English
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.1b Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.1d Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
Knowledge of Language
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.3c
Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g.,
presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate
(e.g., smallgroup discussion).
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.4
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiplemeaning words
and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from
a range of strategies.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.4a Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.4b Use common, gradeappropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.4c
Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries,
thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and
determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.5 Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.5c
Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites
(antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings
(synonyms).
 CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.4.6
Acquire and use accurately gradeappropriate general academic and
domainspecific words and phrases, including those that signal precise
actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered)
and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).
MATHOperations and Algebraic Thinking Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems.  CCSS.Math.Content.4.OA.A.1
Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35
= 5 × 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as
many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as
multiplication equations.
 CCSS.Math.Content.4.OA.A.2
Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative
comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the
unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative
comparison from additive comparison.^{1}
 CCSS.Math.Content.4.OA.A.3
Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having
wholenumber answers using the four operations, including problems in
which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using
equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the
reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation
strategies including rounding.
Gain familiarity with factors and multiples.  CCSS.Math.Content.4.OA.B.4
Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1–100. Recognize
that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine
whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is a multiple of a given
onedigit number. Determine whether a given whole number in the range
1–100 is prime or composite.
Generate and analyze patterns.  CCSS.Math.Content.4.OA.C.5
Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify
apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule
itself. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number
1, generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the terms
appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why
the numbers will continue to alternate in this way.
Number and Operations  Base Ten Generalize place value understanding for multidigit whole numbers.  CCSS.Math.Content.4.NBT.A.1
Recognize that in a multidigit whole number, a digit in one place
represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right. For example, recognize that 700 ÷ 70 = 10 by applying concepts of place value and division.
 CCSS.Math.Content.4.NBT.A.2
Read and write multidigit whole numbers using baseten numerals,
number names, and expanded form. Compare two multidigit numbers based
on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols
to record the results of comparisons.
Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multidigit arithmetic.  CCSS.Math.Content.4.NBT.B.5
Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a onedigit whole
number, and multiply two twodigit numbers, using strategies based on
place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the
calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.
 CCSS.Math.Content.4.NBT.B.6
Find wholenumber quotients and remainders with up to fourdigit
dividends and onedigit divisors, using strategies based on place value,
the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between
multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by
using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.
Number and Operations  Fractions Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering.  CCSS.Math.Content.4.NF.A.1 Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n × a)/(n × b)
by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and
size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are
the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent
fractions.
 CCSS.Math.Content.4.NF.A.2
Compare two fractions with different numerators and different
denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by
comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that
comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same
whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <,
and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.
Build fractions from unit fractions. CCSS.Math.Content.4.NF.B.3a Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole.
 CCSS.Math.Content.4.NF.B.3b
Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator
in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation.
Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Examples: 3/8 = 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8 ; 3/8 = 1/8 + 2/8 ; 2 1/8 = 1 + 1 + 1/8 = 8/8 + 8/8 + 1/8.
 CCSS.Math.Content.4.NF.B.3c
Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by
replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using
properties of operations and the relationship between addition and
subtraction.
 CCSS.Math.Content.4.NF.B.3d
Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions
referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using
visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.
 CCSS.Math.Content.4.NF.B.4a Understand a fraction a/b as a multiple of 1/b. For
example, use a visual fraction model to represent 5/4 as the product 5 ×
(1/4), recording the conclusion by the equation 5/4 = 5 × (1/4).
 CCSS.Math.Content.4.NF.B.4b Understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number. For
example, use a visual fraction model to express 3 × (2/5) as 6 × (1/5),
recognizing this product as 6/5. (In general, n × (a/b) = (n × a)/b.)
 CCSS.Math.Content.4.NF.B.4c
Solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole
number, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent
the problem. For example, if each person at a party will eat 3/8 of a
pound of roast beef, and there will be 5 people at the party, how many
pounds of roast beef will be needed? Between what two whole numbers does
your answer lie?
Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions.  CCSS.Math.Content.4.NF.C.5
Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with
denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with
respective denominators 10 and 100.^{2} For example, express 3/10 as 30/100, and add 3/10 + 4/100 = 34/100.
 CCSS.Math.Content.4.NF.C.6 Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100. For example, rewrite 0.62 as 62/100; describe a length as 0.62 meters; locate 0.62 on a number line diagram.
 CCSS.Math.Content.4.NF.C.7
Compare two decimals to hundredths by reasoning about their size.
Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two decimals refer to
the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols
>, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual
model.
Measurement and Data Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements. CCSS.Math.Content.4.MD.A.1
Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units
including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a
single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in
terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a twocolumn
table. For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in.
Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table
for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36),
...
 CCSS.Math.Content.4.MD.A.2
Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances,
intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money,
including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems
that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a
smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as
number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.
 CCSS.Math.Content.4.MD.A.3 Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. For
example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the
flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication
equation with an unknown factor.
Represent and interpret data.  CCSS.Math.Content.4.MD.B.4
Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a
unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction
of fractions by using information presented in line plots. For
example, from a line plot find and interpret the difference in length
between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection.
Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles.  CCSS.Math.Content.4.MD.C.5
Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays
share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement:
 CCSS.Math.Content.4.MD.C.5a
An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the
common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular
arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An
angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a “onedegree
angle,” and can be used to measure angles.
 CCSS.Math.Content.4.MD.C.7
Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into
nonoverlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the
angle measures of the parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to
find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical
problems, e.g., by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown angle
measure.
Geometry Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles.  CCSS.Math.Content.4.G.A.1
Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse),
and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in twodimensional
figures.
 CCSS.Math.Content.4.G.A.2
Classify twodimensional figures based on the presence or absence of
parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of
a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify
right triangles.
 CCSS.Math.Content.4.G.A.3
Recognize a line of symmetry for a twodimensional figure as a line
across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into
matching parts. Identify linesymmetric figures and draw lines of
symmetry.
^{1}Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000.
^{1} Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 100.
^{2} Students who can generate equivalent fractions can
develop strategies for adding fractions with unlike denominators in
general. But addition and subtraction with unlike denominators in
general is not a requirement at this grade. 
